Details China’s struggles against a history of unequal treaties
Understanding a country’s history is a vital way of understanding its people. In Unequal Treaties and China, author Wang Jianlang looks at how history has affected the nation and how those unequal treaties from foreign powers have shaped China’s policies even up until the modern day.
From the first Opium War (1839-1842) and until the birth of New China in 1949, China was forced to sign multiple unequal treaties by foreign imperialist and invading powers. In these treaties, China conceded many of its sovereign rights in terms of territory and commerce. Ever since the time of the first unequal treaty (the Treaty of Nanjing), the people of China have struggled to invalidate these unequal treaties. Unequal Treaties and China provides a comprehensive overview of China’s history of fighting against these unequal treaties.
Wang Jianlang's book provides a vivid and well documented account of the ignominious origins and early development of the unequal treaty system in China, demonstrating why the Chinese government and its citizens considered the return of Hong Kong to the Mainland in 1997 to symbolize the "washing away of one hundred years of national shame."
--Richard J Smith, George and Nancy Rupp Professor of Humanities, Rice University
Chapter 1 Diplomatic Predicaments in the Early Years of the Republic of China
Chapter 2 The Paris Peace Conference and the Washington Naval Conference
Chapter 3 The Establishment of New Sino–Russia Relations and the Tough Stance of the Guangzhou Government on Foreign Powers
Chapter 4 The Beiyang Government’s Diplomatic Warfare to Revise Unequal Treaties and the Guangzhou Government’s Struggle for the Abrogation of Unequal Treaties
About the Author
Wang Jianlang is the President of the Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), the General Secretary of the Association of Chinese Historians, and the Dean of the Department of Modern History of the Graduate School, CASS. He majors in the Modern history of China’s foreign relations. He is also the author of The Return of Xinjiang to Chinese Central Control during the Last Days of the Sino-Japanese War: A Reappraisal Based on Chiang Kai-shek’s Diary (2010) and other works.